Serum and liver metabolites in rats fed red ginseng (RG) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to discriminate between control and RG groups and identify metabolites contributing to this discrimination. The RG group was clearly separated from the control group on PLS-DA scores plot for serum samples, but not liver samples. The major metabolites contributing to the discrimination included lipid metabolites (lysophosphatidylcholine, acyl-carnitine, and sphingosine), isoleucine, nicotinamide, and corticosterone in the serum; the blood levels of all but isoleucine were reduced by RG administration. Not all metabolites were positively correlated with the health benefits of RG. However, the blood levels of lysophosphatidylcholine, which stimulate various diseases, and long-chain acylcarnitines and corticosterone, which activate the stress response, were reduced by RG, suggesting long-term RG might relieve stress and prevent physiological and biological problems.